Professor Jain's research is primarily concerned with the ways in which stories get told about injuries, how they are thought to be caused, and how that matters. Figuring out the political and social significance of these stories has led to the study of law, product design, medical error, and histories of engineering, regulation, corporations, and advertising.
Jain’s most recent book, Malignant: How Cancer Becomes Us (2013) aims to better understand American life and culture through cancer. Using a combination of history, memoir, and cultural analysis, Malignant explores why cancer remains so confounding, despite the billions of dollars spent in search of a cure.
Her widely reviewed book, Injury, (2006) explores the distinct ways that products, such as cars and cigarettes, come to be understood as dangerous. Often the so-called inherent dangers of a product vary according to historical ideas about danger, responsibility, and fault.
Her other research interests include extra-legal forms of communications, such as warning signs and medical apologies; queer studies; art and design.
Jain was awarded the Cultural Horizons Prize by the Society for Cultural Anthropology for "Best Article published in the journal Cultural Anthropology" in 2004. She has been a Humanities Center Fellow, a fellow at the Stanford Humanities Center, and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Social and Behavioral Sciences.